This research material discusses the scenario prevailing in the Global economy and provides a glimpse on the effects of the global financial crisis and the significant measures taken under the theme of 'God's Global Governance'
Global warming will lead to a rise in the level of the oceans and seas, causing a serious deterioration of the climate over the next 1,000 years. Burning of fossil fuels and the gases produced - especially carbon dioxide - were responsible for most of the temperature increases recorded during the second half of the last century. Forecasts say the level of the oceans and seas will rise by between 18cm and 59cm by the end of the century as a result of the melting of the ice caps at the two poles. International efforts to mitigate climate change needs improvement to meet the goal of keeping global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. These put economic and social development at a global risk. However, with appropriate climate and energy policies, renewable energy sources can substantially contribute to human well-being, and thus lead to positive effects including a stabilisation of the climate.
The international political response to climate change began with the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992, setting out a framework for action aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Under this Convention, governments gather and share information on greenhouse gas emissions, national policies and best practices. Governments launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and the expected impact, including the provision of financial and technological support to developing countries.
The Kyoto Protocol is a part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), and is aimed at fighting global warming. The European Union (EU) was been a driving force for negotiations, which led to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The European Union has long been committed to international efforts to tackle climate change. The EU trade policy objectives include a liberalization of environmental goods and services, a need for global markets of carbon dioxide emissions trading, the development of renewable energy, and fostering trade cooperation to improve energy efficiency.
Some of the EU trade instruments, such as the generalized system of preferences (GSP) and the Sustainability Impact Assessments (SIAs) support the environment. The EU's target for fueling transport with renewable energy sources by 2020 is now set at 10%, including biofuels, green electricity and other renewables.
Participating nations adopted the Bali Road Map at the United Nations climate change conference in December 2007. This was a two-year process to finalize a binding agreement in 2009 in Copenhagen. In the 15th Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15), in Dec 2009, the Copenhagen accord endorsed the continuation of the Kyoto Protocol, and recognized "the scientific view that an increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius.
The 16th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) to the UNFCCC was held in Cancun, Mexico and called for rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, as pledged in the Copenhagen Accord, and for developing countries to plan to reduce their emissions. In the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 17) to the UNFCCC in Durban, South Africa, negotiators agreed to be part of a legally binding treaty to address global warming. The agreement includes developing countries, such as China and India. The terms of the future treaty were to be defined by 2015 and become effective in 2020. The agreement, referred to as the "Durban platform'', is notable. The deal extends the Kyoto Protocol, whose first phase of emissions cuts run from 2008 to the end of 2012. The second commitment period will run from January 1, 2013 until the end of 2017.
The State of Qatar supports the efforts of the United Nations Millennium goals, the ongoing negotiations under the UNFCC. The 18th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 18) to the UNFCCC was held in Doha,Qatar. The conference had come out with the "Doha Climate Gateway'' which pushed forward the solutions to climate change.
The concept of sustainable development has attained significant importance at the global level, and the United Nations conducted a conference on this in Rio-de-Janerio Brazil, called Rio+20, or the Rio Earth Summit in June 2012. In the summit, leaders reaffirmed their commitment to various initiatives through the document "The Future we want." Hence, sustainable development requires a thrust at a global level for effective implementation.